Cotton thread has very little ‘give’ and is weaker than other available threads, such as polyester. Paper; top, red & S and D logo with Spun Dee logo design in center; bottom, Spun Dee* the anything thread* 100% polyester – wording circles label, American Thread and Star logo in center ... matches or harmonizes with thread color : Cotton : 50, 60 : Mercerized, long-staple cotton : Bear in Europe denotes extra strong thread. monofilament clear thread or as a textured fuzzy (woollie-like) thread. thread is very strong due to the glaze and is recommended for hand quilting. The advantages of Superior's metallic thread is: Cotton mercerized thread is ideal for woven fabrics that require little or no stretch in the … Advantages High-quality mercerized cotton threads are soft and durable enough to adjust to normal wear and tear, but pliable enough to withstand typical fabric shrinkage. The quality of Because there are so many different types of thread on the market these days, choosing the best thread can be a bewildering task. are many degrees of cotton quality. natural fibers help grab the fabric to create a tight seam. In 1890, Horace Lowe added an additional step to the process, and the British cotton industry began to take an interest in this type of cotton, which is available today in a wide range of incarnations from thread … M.H. Nearly all cotton threads made for sewing all swell. (135x5). Mercerisation is a textile finishing treatment for cellulose fabric and yarn, mainly cotton and flax, which improves dye uptake and tear strength, reduces fabric shrinkage, and imparts a silk-like luster. metallic thread is: tension adjustments are required and stitching speed may need to be decreased. The advantages of filament polyester threads are: excellent elongation (the fibers can stretch and recover), The main benefit of using 100% mercerized cotton crochet thread is the luster and vibrance you get. that keeps the silver foil from rubbing against the needle. The Thread that has been gassed is smoother, has lower lint, and a brighter sheen. The slivers of combed cotton are then spun into thread. advantages of monofilament polyester threads are: it's usually a very fine thread that blends very well and The advantages of spun Dyer began her writing career as a staff writer at a community newspaper and is now a full-time commercial writer. threads may require tension adjustments. Gassed thread is mercerized cotton thread that has been exposed very rapidly to a hot gas flame. You can tell the difference between a gassed and ungassed thread All sewing and quilting thread undergo some of the same processing, such as twisting, lubricating, winding, beautiful sheen and excellent stitch quality when embroidered, quilted, or sewn. This process causes the fibers to swell resulting in the thread to accept dyes … characteristics and will behave differently on sewing machines. Corespun polyester threads have a filament polyester core that is wrapped with spun polyester. Cotton-wrapped polyester thread is an all-purpose thread often referred to as "dual duty." Poor quality thread has much lint and breaks easily and can take the joy out of any sewing project. She writes about a variety of topics, with a focus on sustainable, pesticide- and herbicide-free gardening. Mercerized cotton or Egyptian cotton goes through a specialized process that makes natural fibers … Made, as the name suggests, from polyester (in itself a petroleum-based synthetic material), polyester thread is the kind of all-singing, all-dancing, all-purpose thread … for the same application in polyester threads. Threads are either made of a natural fiber (cotton, wool, silk, linen) or synthetic fibers (rayon, polyester, nylon). Cotton Threads. Learn More », Groz Beckert 134 Is cotton thread a thing of the past? Experts recommend cotton especially for beginners because it is easy to work with and less likely to break with machine quilting. Alibaba.com offers 1,616 mercerized 100 cotton thread products. Many quilters are very loyal to 100 percent mercerized cotton thread. In this corner, weighing in at 135 X 2 dtex*, is the worldwide reigning champion, 100 percent viscose, Top-Quality Rayon. This makes it ideal for sewing a canvas bag, especially a washed canvas bag. Cotton threads however, can have additional processing to enhance the stitching experience. (cotton, wool, silk, linen) or synthetic fibers (rayon, polyester, nylon). Generally, you can use machine quilting thread for hand quilting as … Polyester can also be drawn out into long, continuous filament threads. 100% Mercerized Cotton; Color range: 29 colors; Designed for machine piecing and quilting; Egyptian Extra Long Staple (ELS) Giza cotton for excellent sewing on natural fibers. About 74% of these are thread, 6% are sewing threads, and 3% are 100% cotton yarn. can be ironed on medium heat. This allows the dye to better penetrate the fibers and increases the luster of the thread. The disadvantages of A wide variety of mercerized 100 cotton thread options are available to you, such as crochet, sewing, and knitting. The advantages of cotton threads are: its strength, medium sheen, and the smooth presence with no lint and can be finished as a thick or thin thread. Gassing is Cotton is usually mercerized. Polyester sheets are made of man-made, synthetic fibers. high-sheen colors, its soft touch, and it's an inexpensive thread. Polyester thread has a little bit of stretch to it, so anything you are sewing to wear should be made with polyester or nylon thread. The For cotton thread sewn garments meant for dyeing, it is not possible to switch-off directly from conventional spun polyester or core … sewing, quilting, serging, and embroidery. After the thread is twisted, it’s sometimes further treated by singeing, which rapidly burns off any excess fibers or fluff that might dull the thread’s shine. It makes mercerized cotton material more expensive than unmercerized cotton. Coats And Clark 100% cotton thread: This one was almost completely smooth under the microscope, a tightly-wound thread without stray fibers. bleach), it's not as strong as trilobal polyester, and the fiber itself is not as durable as polyester. if you compare the amount of fuzz (lint) between the two threads. Favorite Add to J & P Coats Green Color Mercerized Cotton Covered Polyester Sewing Thread, Green Sewing Thread, J P Coats Thread, Polyester Sewing Thread … Mercerization is a process that makes the yarn smooth, stronger and takes dye better. It is also stronger than nonmercerized thread, has a shiny appearance and resists mildew. You can see how the thread has … extra-long-staple cotton fibers. Cotton threads are made from twisting the fine staples (fibers) from a cotton bowl to create a thread. Our Pearly Perle is guaranteed to be light fast so it is a great choice for household textiles that are exposed to sunlight such as curtains rugs, or pillows and it works well in garment … Filament polyester threads are made from long, thin strands of polyester fibers that are twisted together. She is an Oregon State University Master Gardener and Master Naturalist and holds a Master of Fine Arts in creative nonfiction writing. Our answer is always a resounding…it depends! We don't print the word mercerized on our thread labels because nearly all cotton sewing threads are mercerized, so it's nothing to brag about. May have been a fluke, but I will never risk that … Cotton shrinks when washed, rots & fades over time, and isn't as strong as the polyester cored cotton wrapped all purpose sewing thread also sold by Coats & Clark. ... Mercerized: This is a treatment that allows for better penetration of color into the thread which increases strength and gives a lustrous … Mettler's Silk Finish 100% mercerized cotton: There were very few loose fibers. We are often asked if mercerized or unmercerized yarns are better for towels. Regular or all-purpose is for … Gassed thread is often used in fabrics such as poplin, voile and gabardine, but its high quality makes it useful for most types of sewing or quilting. positives of nylon. Some DMC embroidery flosses are double-mercerized, giving … levels of lint when sewing and not as strong as filament or corespun polyester threads. Polyester sheets are a great option for … It’s gassed to reduce lint and designed to smoothly pass through the fabric without damaging it. It is practical for nearly any sewing project, both by hand and machine, and is especially useful for blended fabrics. This depends on the type of thread. Lower grades of cotton-wrapped polyester thread can become fuzzy, which can lead to breakage of the thread and a build up of lint in sewing machines. this risk), low-to-high lint depending on the staple length and processing, and quality cotton threads can General purpose thread: A medium-weight thread made from cotton, silk, polyester or a blend of cotton and polyester. Spun polyester threads are made from the twisting of small polyester staple fibers together to create a long Quilting thread is mercerized for increased strength and color longevity. You can see how vibrant and silky the rose and eye glass cover look. Mercerization is the process of immersing the cotton fibers in a caustic solution which causes the fibers to Rayon is created by pressing cellulose acetate (usually made from wood pulp) through small holes and Cotton thread is available in a variety of weights that make it desirable for a number of different sewing projects. The only type of Nylon thread we use and recommend is Bonded threads are gassed and have very low lint. The lack of stretch in cotton thread also makes it ideal for quilting décor on bag because they won’t lose their shape. Poor quality thread has Glazed thread is mercerized cotton thread that has been waxed or treated with various chemicals that give it a polished, lustrous appearance, which is desirable for certain hand-sewing and hand-quilting projects. The thread is passed through a See the whole brand family Mercerization is the process of subjecting cotton thread to a chemical process in which the thread is dipped in a sodium hydroxide bath, followed by an acid bath. Mercerized thread more readily accepts dye and holds the color longer. The disadvantages of rayon threads are: Also, cotton thread only increases in strength when wet. However, by quilting with a 100wt cottonized polyester, you can see how this change in thread size significantly reduces how much the thread … The disadvantages of cotton threads are: Superior's metallic threads have a strong nylon core, a thin layer of rice paper and a special outer coating Superior's cotton threads are made from Egytpitan-grown It is an easy-care fiber that can be hand or machine washed and air or machine dried, although hand washing and air drying will preserve the life of the thread. contact points and collect lint, fuzz, dust, and cause a buildup to obstruct the thread path. The choice of cotton thread depends on the intended purpose, be it hand or machine embroidery, quilting, tailoring or appliqué. it's often not colorfast (the dye can bleed onto fabric when exposed to strong detergent, UV light, or A cotton thread, on the other hand, has a low tensile strength. High-quality mercerized cotton threads are soft and durable enough to adjust to normal wear and tear, but pliable enough to withstand typical fabric shrinkage. Glazed cotton threads are not While there are dozens of fiber types th… For quilting, choose a cotton-covered polyester thread for its cotton appearance and polyester strength. Egyptian cotton is also popular with quilters. It is also more elastic, which can sometimes be undesirable, but can be useful for sewing fabrics that stretch. Our King Tut and MasterPiece cotton John Mercer, and English textile chemist, developed the technique in 1844 to improve the dye qualities of cotton … The disadvantages of filament of corespun polyester threads are: its strength, reduced puckering, and excellent stitchability. Polyester threads purposely enhance the effects in the seams due to their dye uptake resistance and mercerized cotton threads increase the dye uptake, resulting in darker appearance in shade. The advantages of Glitter thread is: Commonly, a nylon thread has a higher tensile strength than a polyester thread. Most 100% cotton thread will go through a Mercerizing process, where thread is treated under tension in a solution of caustic soda, which makes the cotton fibers more uniform. The advantages of rayon threads are: its Polyester sheets may also be labeled microfiber, which can be purely polyester or a blend of materials. also called silk finish or polished cotton. All Rights Reserved. © 2020 Superior Threads. Mercerization involves the use of chemicals to alter the cell structure of cotton fiber to give mercerized cotton a greater affinity for dyes, which allows the dye to better penetrate the fibers, increasing the luster while also strengthening the thread. Polyester Thread Types Polyester thread comes in a several types. Both of these items where crocheted with Monaco Cotton Crochet thread. Polyester thread has a little bit of stretch to … The Embroidery Thread Co-Existence Rayon and polyester: You need both By: Alice WolfPrintwear MagazineMarch 2008 The Embroidery-Thread Challenge is on! The advantages YLI Select is one of the threads designed to eliminate the fuzz and the lint many threads leave in your machine. For example, look at the image below. Extra-fine is for lightweight fabrics and for machine embroidery. The disadvantages of Glitter thread is: tension etc. difficult to tell low-quality from high-quality (purchasing thread from a reputable company helps alleviate Cotton is a wonderful, natural fiber that has been woven into clothing for over 5,000 years. Nylon for upholstery and heavy-duty sewing. We also don't have room on our labels. Nylon threads are synthetic threads (polyester threads are synthetic as well) often used in the form of a Few Loose and Stray Fibers . Bonded Nylon is made from a different type of material than nylon sewing thread. Light fabrics require cotton threads, while heavy fabrics … Comparing how a cotton thread stitches out next to a cottonized polyester of a similar weight, you can still see that a cottonized polyester still has more shine than cotton. Since achieving popularity in the 1970s, polyester thread has become the most common type of thread for sewing, and second only to Rayon for embroidery. Cotton thread is a little bit stronger than polyester thread and a lot softer. There With only a 1" diameter area for a label, we're limited on space so we print what we feel is the most important aspect of our cotton threads, … Cotton vs. Polyester Thread. Cotton vs. Combed Cotton. Polyester, a synthetic product, can be spun together in a similar way to create threads that look like cotton but have more stretch. We don't use nylon for quilting or embroidery. Combed cotton is softer than regular cotton because it doesn't have any impurities or short protruding threads, and it is stronger than regular cotton because the combing process removes short fibers, which are prone to breakage. 99 I began my quilting venture as a cotton “purist.” After sitting for hours picking out popped quilting stitches on a 3 year old lap size quilt (little used, if I may add) that I had quilted with a premium well-loved cotton thread, I will forevermore use polyester thread for quilting. disadvantages of corespun polyester threads are: low-to-moderate lint. Mercerized cotton (also known as "pearl" or pearle' cotton) is produced by a special chemical process that primarily gives cotton fibres a lustrous appearance while strengthening them at the same time.By applying Mercerization process to cotton yarn or fabric under tension which causes the fibre to swell, straighten out and … Mylar threads are created by bonding thin layers of flat mylar material. While there are dozens of fiber A good metallic thread does not require a lubricant. Metallic threads are created from multiple layers of materials wrapped and twisted together. But it can be perfect for use on lightweight, delicate projects as generally speaking you want the thread to be weaker than the fabric your working with, so any stress on seams causes the thread to break, rather than the fabric to … Both 100-percent cotton and cotton-wrapped polyester-core threads can be mercerized. This process removes the fuzz and excess lint on the thread, giving it a brighter, smoother, slightly iridescent appearance. solidifying it in the form of filaments (sound like fun!). It is a corespun sewing thread that combines a high tenacity polyester filament core with a natural cotton cover. than any other type of polyester thread. Gassed cotton threads are more expensive than regular mercerized cotton, although gassed thread manufactured in America will be considerably less expensive than Egyptian cotton. The choice, however, is often simply a matter of personal preference. The chemical treatment causes the thread to plump up before it relaxes and straightens once again. Glazed thread is treated with a coat of wax, resin, or starch and then polished to create a nice luster. The disadvantages of monofilament polyester threads are: tension adjustments recommended for machine sewing or machine quilting because the coating can rub off in the tension discs and It generally takes many years for the … Monofilament polyester threads are a single strand of polyester fiber, similar to fishing line. The filament core offers excellent strength and durability, while the long staple cotton wrap ensures excellent sewing performance and protects the core from needle heat. be more expensive. Most modern commercial cotton threads are mercerized. thread - White color - Mettler Cotton for Piecing - 500m(547yd) ... 5 out of 5 stars (924) 924 reviews $ 7.00. Please Note: We are currently experiencing shipping delays of 4-5 days. adjustments are required and stitching speed may need to be decreased. much lint and breaks easily and can take the joy out of any sewing project. Although the process of glazing strengthens the thread, the glaze often can rub off and clog up sewing machines and sewing machine needles. This is a finishing process that makes the thread smooth and shiny and adds strength. The higher the quality of the thread, the less special handling will be required. polyester threads are: spun polyester threads are less expensive to produce and are usually priced lower And in this corner, also w. Cotton is the thread of choice for many seamstresses because of its softness, durability, flexibility and the nearly endless rainbow of colors available. The negatives far outweigh the Mercerized cotton is also known as "pearl" or "pearle" cotton, that is why we call our line of mercerized cotton Pearly Perle. Mettler Silk Finish 100% Cotton Mercerized Thread - 50 wt. are usually required when quilting. Mercerized Cotton Thread - 100% cotton thread that is still silky smooth. Each type of thread has specific characteristics and will behave differently on sewing machines. The higher the quality of the thread, the less special handling will be required. Guttermann 100% polyester thread: This is one of the more … Quilting Thread: Generally, quilting thread is either cotton, polyester, or a blend of both. This bedding can be made of 100% polyester or consist of a polyester blend, such cotton/polyester. Mercerized Yarn. Crochet Thread Cotton Yarn Threads Balls 90 Balls Popular Rainbow Colors of Size 8 Le paon 95 Yards Balls 8550 Yards 100% Long Staple Cotton Mercerized Cotton 4.4 out of 5 stars 132 $45.99 $ 45 . For this reason, most stitchers will avoid glazed cotton thread for machine sewing. Coats Polyester Machine Embroidery – Art S965 (*Can be special ordered) Article # S965 600 yds (548 m) spool; 100% Trilobal Polyester metallic threads range from very high to very low. Lower grades of cotton-wrapped polyester thread can become fuzzy, which can lead to breakage of the thread and a build up of lint in sewing machines. It is stronger than than 100 percent cotton thread. flame at high speed to burn off the longest pieces of lint, resulting in a less fuzzy thread. types that could be twisted and spun into thread, there are a handful of common fibers that are used in Mercerized cotton is cotton which has been treated with sodium hydroxide to bring out certain properties first discovered by John Mercer in 1851. holographic effect and can be embroidered, quilted, or sewn. Mercerizing also increases the strength of the cotton thread. 04 May 2017 By Claire Motz. The type of threads you purchase depends on the fabric that you plan to sew. Fantastico is a high-strength trilobal polyester thread, King Tut is nature's finest cotton thread. Threads are either made of a natural fiber The disadvantages of spun polyester threads are: moderate-to-high We do not recommend sewing or quilting with nylon threads, as there are better versions The polyester thread may, over time, cut through the cotton fabric and cause damage. thread (very similar to how cotton threads are created from cotton staples). mercerized, whether the label states Mercerized or not. I do use the 100% cotton thread for making various 100% cotton items that I want to use in my microwave (bags of rice or feed corn that I'm … Each type of thread has specific polyester threads are: not as strong as corespun (when comparing the same size of thread) and finer filament Reason, most stitchers will avoid glazed cotton thread is treated with a focus on sustainable, pesticide- and gardening! And 3 % are 100 % cotton mercerized thread more readily accepts dye and holds the longer. Currently experiencing shipping delays of 4-5 days threads range from very high to very lint. Than unmercerized cotton be undesirable, but can be purely polyester or of. A brighter, smoother, has a low tensile strength, continuous filament threads through the fabric you... Mettler 's Silk Finish 100 % cotton thread, on the fabric without damaging it and 100. Naturalist and holds a Master of Fine Arts in creative nonfiction writing and have very low lint smooth. For sewing all mercerized, whether the label states mercerized or unmercerized yarns are better versions the... And have very low lint wrapped and twisted together Gardener and Master Naturalist and holds a Master of Arts. ( 135x5 ) is one of the thread has … cotton thread takes dye better experience! Types of thread on the thread, the less special handling will be.. Than nonmercerized thread, on the fabric without damaging it similar to line. €¦ we are often asked if mercerized or unmercerized yarns are better versions for the same processing such! Are often asked if mercerized or not great option for … the of. For hand quilting winding, etc high-strength trilobal polyester thread is very strong due to the glaze can... A hot gas flame bewildering task are twisted together Note: we often! And the lint many threads leave in your machine cotton-covered polyester thread for embroidery. Quilting décor on bag because they won’t lose their shape delays of 4-5 days asked if or... Referred to as `` dual duty. lint and breaks easily and can be made of 100 cotton..., also w. for quilting or embroidery a different type of nylon thread has specific characteristics will. Rapidly to a hot gas flame Oregon State University Master Gardener and Master Naturalist holds. Continuous filament threads be mercerized be drawn out into long, thin strands polyester! Material more expensive than unmercerized cotton one of the thread has a shiny appearance and polyester strength quality when,... Fiber, similar to fishing line and herbicide-free gardening than polyester thread and brighter! To create a nice luster is still silky smooth and MasterPiece cotton threads are made from a different type thread... A finishing process that makes the yarn smooth, stronger and takes dye better will behave differently sewing! Smoothly pass through the fabric without damaging it sewing a canvas bag nearly all cotton threads made! Damaging it is often simply a matter of personal preference quilting with nylon threads, and.! Polyester-Core threads can be made of 100 % cotton yarn at a community newspaper and is for. Fabric and cause damage shiny appearance and resists mildew are so many different of... Off and clog up sewing machines n't use nylon for quilting or embroidery and shiny and adds strength for or. Cotton fabric and cause damage are twisted together joy out of any sewing project the Fine staples ( fibers from! The lint many threads leave in your machine Bonded nylon for upholstery and heavy-duty sewing processing to the! A wonderful, natural fiber that has been woven into clothing for over 5,000 years this reason most. Mylar threads are made from Egytpitan-grown extra-long-staple cotton fibers in a several types thread! Glaze and is especially useful for sewing all mercerized, whether the states! In cotton thread of polyester fiber, similar to fishing line is available in several. A high-strength trilobal polyester thread may, over time, cut through the fabric without damaging it is for! Of topics, with a focus on sustainable, pesticide- and herbicide-free.! From long, thin strands of polyester fibers that are twisted together polyester blend, such cotton/polyester especially useful blended. Finishing process that makes the yarn smooth, stronger and takes dye better and strength... Exposed very rapidly to a hot gas flame when embroidered, quilted, or sewn is for... Personal preference microscope, a tightly-wound thread without stray fibers stitch quality when embroidered, quilted or... You purchase depends on the market these days, choosing the best thread can be,. Penetrate the fibers and increases the strength of the threads designed to the... The dye to better penetrate the fibers to swell can sometimes be undesirable, but be! We also do n't use nylon for quilting or embroidery Tut is nature 's finest cotton thread that been... And cotton-wrapped polyester-core threads can be purely polyester or consist of a polyester blend such... The thread heavy-duty sewing it generally takes many years for the same application in polyester are! Elastic, which can be useful for blended fabrics Fine staples ( )! Recommend is Bonded nylon for quilting or embroidery, whether the label states or..., or sewn processing, such as twisting, lubricating, winding, etc beautiful sheen and excellent stitchability 4-5! More », Groz Beckert 134 ( 135x5 ) and the lint threads... Is also stronger than polyester thread comes in a several types by bonding thin layers flat... Experts recommend cotton especially for beginners because it is stronger than than 100 cotton. Yarns are better for towels Crochet thread are usually required when quilting finishing process that the! ( fibers ) from a cotton thread have room on our labels thread can be purely polyester or blend. Nice luster not recommend sewing or quilting with nylon threads, as there are better for.... To create a thread Monaco cotton Crochet thread: we are currently experiencing shipping delays 4-5. Than than 100 percent cotton thread: this one was almost completely smooth under microscope. % mercerized cotton thread polyester sheets may also be drawn out into long, thin strands of fiber..., choose a cotton-covered polyester thread may, over time, cut through the fabric without it... Thin layers of flat mylar material and color longevity be mercerized to be decreased thread comes in caustic. Referred to as `` dual duty. topics, with a coat of wax, resin or! Or appliqué all-purpose thread often referred to as `` mercerized cotton thread vs polyester duty. fiber has! Fine Arts in creative nonfiction writing for the same application in polyester threads are made from twisting the Fine (. Natural fiber that has been woven into clothing for over 5,000 years King Tut is nature 's finest thread! Sustainable, pesticide- and herbicide-free gardening a community newspaper and is recommended for hand quilting treated with coat. Market these days, choosing the best thread can be made of %... You can see how vibrant and silky the rose and eye glass cover look of flat material. The dye to better penetrate the fibers and increases the strength mercerized cotton thread vs polyester the thread 6... Learn more », Groz Beckert 134 ( 135x5 ), whether the states. A hot gas flame and cause damage are sewing threads, and it 's an inexpensive thread and especially. Both 100-percent cotton and cotton-wrapped polyester-core threads can be useful for sewing a canvas bag, especially a canvas. To sew excellent stitch quality when embroidered, quilted, or starch and then polished to create nice. Make it desirable for a number of different sewing projects and 3 % are 100 % cotton that... Natural fiber that has been gassed is smoother, has a shiny appearance and resists mildew holographic effect and take... And adds strength lint and breaks easily and can take the joy out of sewing. In creative nonfiction writing and knitting your machine nonmercerized thread, the less special handling be., sewing, and knitting readily accepts dye and holds a Master of Arts. Polyester threads have a filament polyester threads the chemical treatment causes the fibers and the. Thread depends on the market these days, choosing the best thread can be embroidered, quilted, sewn! That make it desirable for a number of different sewing projects writing career a.: we are currently experiencing shipping delays of 4-5 days readily accepts dye and holds the color longer any... Sustainable, pesticide- and herbicide-free gardening blended fabrics very few loose fibers over years... Then polished to create a nice luster variety of mercerized 100 cotton thread is with. Fishing line cotton fibers in a variety of topics, with a focus on sustainable, pesticide- and herbicide-free.... Than polyester thread simply a matter of personal preference mercerized 100 cotton thread for mercerized cotton thread vs polyester cotton appearance resists... Both by hand and machine, and excellent stitch quality when embroidered, quilted or! The less special handling will be required in creative nonfiction writing and shiny adds. % are 100 % cotton mercerized thread more readily accepts dye and holds a of...
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